Cambridge, considered part of the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts, was established first as Newtowne in 1630. With a population of approximately 102,000, the city is noted for a diverse racial, political, and economic population and is unofficially identified as
Boston's Left Bank. Most notably, the city is known for Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the original village site is the heart of today's Harvard Square. Harvard College was founded by the colony primarily to train ministers. The second city to be incorporated in Massachusetts in 1846, Cambridge grew rapidly.
Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character with streetcar suburban development along the turnpikes, working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing being built on old estates in Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills of the city. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge then led to three major changes in the city: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave., and Alewife Brook; the ice-cutting industry launched by Frederic Tudor on Fresh Pond; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to provide housing to the thousands of immigrants that moved to work in the new industries.
Cambridge's historic buildings include City Hall, Cooper-Frost-Austin House, Elmwood House, Longfellow National Historic Site, Hooper-Lee-Nichols House, and the Asa Gray House. Fine art and artifacts can be found at local museums like the MIT Museum, Fogg Art Museum, and the Busch-Reisinger Museum. Cambridge is also home to several parks and nature-watching areas in and around the city, including Longfellow Bridge, Cambridge Common, Fresh Pond, Charles River, and the Alewife Brook Reservation. Along with MIT and Harvard, Cambridge is also home to Longy School of Music and Lesley University.