Philadelphia is the largest city in Pennsylvania and the fifth most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 1.4 million residents. Known as Philly to most it is also called "The City of Brotherly Love" derived from the Greek "philos" meaning brotherly love and "adelphos" meaning brother. Philadelphia was also the first capitol city of the new United States, largely because it was the geographic center of early cultural and political activity which gave rise to the creation of an independent democracy. It is also one of the earliest examples of a planned city laid out in rectilinear grid of streets that has been used widely in urban planning.
Philadelphia is full of historical reminders of the tumultuous and triumphant beginnings of an independent nation. The most famous is Independence Hall where The Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution were drafted, ratified, and signed. Tun Tavern in the city is credited as being the location where the United States Marine Corps was founded. Memorial Hall and the expansive mall in front of it are remnants of the 1876 Centennial Exposition to mark the one-hundredth anniversary of the creation of the country. Other historic sites include the homes of Edgar Allan Poe and Betsy Ross, and early government buildings.
The Pennsylvania Railroad, once America's largest railroad and at one time the largest public corporation in the world, was headquartered in this city; as was its merger successor, the Penn Central, and Conrail. The city was also a major center for shipbuilding and the production of a variety of textiles up until WWII. Today the city has regained some of its original manufacturing and technology industries, as well being the home of many major Fortune 500 Companies.
Philadelphia has become notable for various arts and has had a prominent role in the music industry, including its own genre: Philadelphia soul. The city is home to many art galleries, many of which participate in the First Friday event, held on the first Friday of each month. On this night the galleries are open late and admission is free. Restaurants and theaters, such as the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts (home to the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Academy of Music), offer a vibrant nightlife and are located in the South Street and Old City areas.
The city contains many museums such as the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Rodin Museum, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art which is one of the largest art museums in the United States. Philadelphia's major science museums include the Franklin Institute- containing the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial- the Academy of Natural Sciences, and the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. History museums include the National Constitution Center, the Atwater-Kent Museum of Philadelphia History, the National Museum of American Jewish History, and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia is also home to the United States' first zoo and hospital.
Philadelphia has over 300,000 students studying in the area's more than 80 colleges and universities. The most prominent of these are Temple University, the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, the University of the Arts, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Thomas Jefferson University, Moore College of Art and Design, the Art Institute of Philadelphia, the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, La Salle University, Philadelphia University, and Saint Joseph's University.